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The Costs and Benefits of Mail, Fax, and Mixed-Mode Surveys in Organizational Research

PAQ, Vol. 29 No. 4, (2006)

This article examines the use of a new technology for
collecting survey data for organizational research. Results are
presented from a mail-and-fax mixed-mode study sent to 487 state and
federal administrative law judges. Comparisons are made between the
modes’ response rates, financial costs, and results. No significant
differences were detected in response choices and only minor
differences were found in the characteristics of individuals who
responded to each of the survey modes. The fax survey was found to
impose a smaller financial cost on the researcher, suggesting the fax
and mail-and-fax mixed-mode surveys to be promising modes of data

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