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Bureaucracy and Democracy: An Essay in Memory of Dwight Waldo

PAQ, Vol. 25 No. 3, (2001)

This article introduces a unified theory of administration and politics
called Political Elasticity (PE) Theory, thereby linking political science
(PS) to public administration (PA). The history of PE theory, which
emerged from Dwight Waldo’s graduate seminar in 1960-61 at the
University of California, Berkeley, is presented and is shown as being
able to unravel “the mysteries of development,” especially the relationship
of bureaucracy and democracy. PE Theory includes a distinction
between primary (liberal) democracy and secondary (classical)
democracy. The implications of this theory are here briefly presented,
concentrating on questions in administrative theory raised by Waldo
during his six decades of studying and teaching public administration.

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